Case-Control Studies for Outbreak Investigations (FOCUS, Volume 3.2)
Length: 40 minutes
This issue of FOCUS covers the basics of conducting a case-control study, which uses the idea of odds to describe relationships between exposure and disease.
These trainings are applicable to all public health, medical, veterinary, pharmacy, emergency management, hospital, and other professionals interested in public health preparedness and field epidemiology. The periodicals and supplemental material are created by doctoral students and graduates of the UNC-CH Department of Epidemiology and reviewed by UNC-CH School of Public Health faculty and topic experts.
- Describe the basic steps of conducting a case-control study.
- Discuss how to select cases and controls.
- Discuss how to conduct basic analysis for a case-control study, including odds, odds ratios, and matched analysis.
- Provide examples of recent outbreak investigations that have used the case-control study design.
Competencies and Capability Functions Addressed
This training addresses selected applied epidemiology, core public health, and public health preparedness and response competencies and public health preparedness capability functions as noted below. (Please note: The following training does not provide comprehensive or in-depth treatment of specified competencies or capability functions, it provides basic knowledge of the competencies or capability functions listed below.)
|Applied Epidemiology Competencies Tier 1|
|Assist in design of investigation (e.g.,disease investigations, studies, or screening programs) (I.C.5)|
|Use analysis plan for data (I.F.1)|
|Conduct analysis of data (I.F.2)|
[odds, odds ratios]
|Applied Epidemiology Competencies Tier 2|
|Assist in design of investigation (e.g., disease investigations, studies, or screening programs) (I.C.5)|
|Create analysis plan for data (I.F.1)|
|Conduct analysis of data (I.F.2)|
[odds, odds ratios]
|Identify key findings from the study (I.G.3)|
|Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals|
|1) Assesses the health status of populations and their related determinants of health and illness (e.g. factors contributing to health promotion and disease prevention, availability and use of health services) (1: Analytic/Assessment Skills)|
|4) Uses methods and instruments for collecting valid and reliable quantitative and qualitative data (1: Analytic/Assessment Skills)|
|9) Interprets quantitative and qualitative data (1: Analytic/Assessment Skills)|
|4) Applies the basic public health sciences (including, but not limited to biostatistics, epidemiology, environmental health sciences, health services administration, and social and behavioral health sciences) to public health policies and programs (6: Basic Public Health Sciences Skills)|
|Public Health Preparedness Capabilities|
|Capability 13, Function 2: Conduct public health and epidemiological investigations|
|Public Health Preparedness & Response Core Competencies|
|2.5. Manage the recording and/or transcription of data according to protocol.|
Gregg MB. Field Epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2002.
Causer LM, Handzel T, Welch P, et al. An outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection at an Illinois recreational waterpark. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134(1):147-156.
Gordis L. Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2000.
Kimura AC, Calvet H, Higa JI, et al. Outbreak of Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:1099-1103.
Ma H, Fontaine R. Varicella outbreak among primary school students--Beijing, China, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(suppl):39-43.
Kimura AC, Palumbo MS, Meyers H, Abbott S, Rodriguez R, Werner SB. A multi-state outbreak of Salmonella serotype Thompson infection from commercially distributed bread contaminated by an ill food handler. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133(5):823-828.
Azziz-Baumgartner E, Lindblade K, Gieseker K, et al and the Aflatoxin Investigative Group. Case-control study of an acute aflatoxicosis outbreak, Kenya, 2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1779-1783.
Eliasson H, Lindbäck J, Nuorti JP, et al. The 2000 tularemia outbreak: a case-control study of risk factors in disease-endemic and emergent areas, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:956-960.
Goode B, O'Reilly C. Outbreak of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) infections associated with a petting zoo at the North Carolina State Fair - Raleigh, North Carolina, November 2004. Raleigh, NC: NC Dept of Health and Human Services; June 29, 2005. Available at: http://www.epi.state.nc.us/epi/gcdc/ecoli/EColiReportFinal062905.pdf. Accessed September 6, 2006.
Wheeler C, Vogt TM, Armstrong GL, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:890-897.
Jay MT, Garrett V, Mohle-Boetani JC, et al. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection linked to consumption of beef tacos at a fast-food restaurant chain. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1-7.
Gottlieb SL, Newbern EC, Griffin PM, et al and the Listeriosis Working Group. Multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:29-36.
Amy Nelson, PhD, MSPH
Kim Brunette, MPH
The author(s) and reviewer(s) of this training have no personal financial relationships with commercial interests relevant to this presentation to disclose.
Continuing Education Credit:
The UNC Center for Public Health Preparedness offers the following continuing education credit/s on this training. Eligibility for all continuing education credit is determined on an annual basis.
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